Soft robotic actuators unlike rigid-link actuators are lightweight and easy to fabricate. However, these soft actuators lack suitable stretch sensing elements for feedback control. Commercially available sensors such as FlexiForce are flexible but not stretchable. Previously, researchers have developed soft sensors  using conductive liquid, carbon nanotube, silver wires or by embedding rigid sensing elements in stretchable substrates. These sensors have complicated designs and are associated with high costs as they utilise materials like gold, silver wires, carbon nanotubes etc. Here, we present a simple, low cost, easy to fabricate, soft resistive sensor capable of stretch sensing. The proposed design employs graphite deposited on hyper elastic substrates to produce scalable stretch sensors.

Keywords: Soft robotics; Stretch sensor; Soft actuator; Wearable electronics.


  • Jain, P., Ramachandran, G.K., Yeow, R.C.H. 2016. Graphite-based resistive stretch sensor for feedback control of soft actuators. Podium presentation at the 16th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering. (Singapore, December 7 – 10, 2016). ICBME ’16. IFMBE.